Each ADM student should take the Self-Assessment Hazardous Attitude Inventory Test in order to gain a realistic perspective on his/her attitudes toward flying. The inventory test requires the pilot to provide a response which most accurately reflects the reasoning behind his/her decision. The pilot must choose one of the five given reasons for making that decision, even though the pilot may not consider any of the five choices acceptable. The inventory test presents extreme cases of incorrect pilot decision making in an effort to introduce the five types of hazardous attitudes.


(This test requires the use of three forms: Attitude Inventory Answer Sheet, Scoring Form, and Attitude Profile. When you encounter them, click on the link to the form, choose "print" when the form appears, and then return to the test by clicking on the link at the bottom of the form.)

a. Read over each of the six situations and the five choices contained in the inventory test. Keep in mind that there are no correct answers.

b. Decide which one of the five choices is the most likely reason for the decision made. Using a copy of the Attitude Inventory Answer Sheet, place the number 5 in the space provided.

c. Continue by ranking in declining order the remaining four probable reasons from 4 (next most likely) to 3, 2, and 1 (least likely) until all five blanks have been filled. (Figure 3 provides an example of how the alternatives might be ranked.)

Situation 1 (Example)

a. 1 (your least likely reason)

b. 3

c. 5 (your most likely reason)

d. 2

e. 4


Situation 1. You are on a flight to an unfamiliar, rural airport. Flight service states that VFR flight is not recommended since heavy coastal fog is forecast to move into the destination airport area about the time you expect to land. You first consider returning to your home base where visibility is still good, but decide instead to continue as planned and land safely after some problems. Why did you reach this decision?

a. You hate to admit that you cannot complete your original flight plan.

b. You resent the suggestion by flight service that you should change your mind.

c. You feel sure that things will turn out safely, and that there is no danger.

d. You reason that since your actions would make no real difference, you might as well continue.

e. You feel the need to decide quickly, so you take the simplest alternative.

Situation 2. While taxiing for takeoff, you notice that your right brake pedal is softer than the left. Once airborne, you are sufficiently concerned about the problem to radio for information. Since strong winds are reported at your destination, an experienced pilot who is a passenger recommends that you abandon the flight and return to your departure airport. You choose to continue the flight and experience no further difficulties. Why did you continue?

a. You feel that suggestions made in this type of situation are usually overly cautious.

b. Your brakes have never failed before, so you doubt, that they will this time.

c. You feel that you can leave the decision to the tower at your destination.

d. You immediately decide that you want to continue.

e. You are sure that if anyone could handle the landing, you can.

Situation 3. Your regular airplane has been grounded because of an airframe problem. You are scheduled in another airplane and discover it is a model you are not familiar with. After your preflight, you decide to take off on your business trip as planned. What was your reasoning?

a. You feel that a difficult situation will not arise so there is no reason not to go.

b. You tell yourself that if there were any danger, you would not have been offered the plane.

c. You are in a hurry and do not want to take the time to think of alternate choices.

d. You do not want to admit that you may have trouble flying an unfamiliar airplane.

e. You are convinced that your flight instructor was much too conservative and pessimistic when he cautioned you to be thoroughly checked out in an unfamiliar aircraft.

Situation 4. You were briefed about possible icing conditions, but did not think there would be any problem since your departure airport temperature was 60 degrees F (15 degrees C). As you near you destination, you encounter freezing precipitation, which clings to your aircraft. Your passenger, who is a more experienced pilot, begins to panic. You consider turning back to the departure airport, but continue instead. Why did you not return?

a. I have made it this far. What is the use in turning back now?

b. The panic of the passenger makes you think it will not happen to me - I have encountered ice before and nothing happened.

c. Why is he panicking? I can handle this situation just like I have done before.

d. FAA regulations exaggerate the dangers of icing. I can handle this situation.

e. I have got to do something. Descend! That will make everyone realize that I am in control.

Situation 5. You do not bother to check weather conditions at your destination. En route, you encounter headwinds. Your fuel supply is adequate to reach your destination, but there is almost no reserve for emergencies. You continue the flight and land with a nearly dry tank. What most influenced you to do this?

a. Being unhappy with the pressure of having to choose what to do, you make a snap decision.

b. You do not want your friends to hear that you had to turn back.

c. You feel that flight manuals always understate the safety margin in fuel tank capacity.

d. You believe that all things usually turn out well, and this will be no exception.

e. You reason that the situation has already been determined because the destination is closer than any other airport.

Situation 6. You are 40 minutes late for a trip in a small airplane. Since the aircraft handled well on the previous day's flight, you decide to skip most of the preflight check. What leads you to this decision?

a. You simply take the first approach to making up time that comes to mind.

b. You feel that your reputation for being on time demands that you cut corners when necessary.

c. You believe that some of the preflight inspection is just a waste of time.

d. You see no reason to think that something unfortunate will happen during this flight.

e. If any problems develop, the responsibility would not be yours. It is the maintenance of the airplane that really makes the difference.


Situation 7. Instrument Pilot ADM Situation. You plan an important business flight under instrument conditions in an aircraft with no deicing equipment through an area in which light to moderate rime or mixed icing in clouds, and precipitation above the freezing level has been forecast. You decide to make the trip, thinking:

a. You believe your skills are good enough to handle ice accumulation on the aircraft.

b. You have been in this situation many times and nothing has happened.

c. You must get to the business meeting in 2 hours and cannot wait.

d. You don't allow an icing forecast to stop you; weather briefers are usually overly cautious.

e. There is nothing you can do about atmospheric conditions.

Situation 8. Commercial Pilot ADM Situation. Your passengers have shown up almost an hour late. You are going to an airport that requires a reservation. Which of the following alternatives best illustrates your reaction?

a. You think to yourself, if I hurry, maybe I can still make it.

b. Nothing will happen if I miss this reservation.

c. I'm smart enough to talk our way in when we arrive.

d. I can't help it if my passengers were late. I don't control them.

e. The Feds wouldn't dare keep me out.

Situation 9. Helicopter Pilot ADM Situation. You are to fly a helicopter which you know is old and has been poorly maintained. A higher than normal turbine outlet temperature on startup is indicated, and you suspect the fuel control. Two fellow company pilots, travelling as passengers, do not want to be delayed. After 5 minutes of debate, you agree to make the trip. Why did you permit yourself to be persuaded?

a. You feel that you must always prove your ability as a pilot, even under less than ideal circumstances.

b. You believe that regulations over-emphasize safety in this kind of situation.

c. You think that the fuel control will certainly last for just one more flight.

d. You feel that your opinion may be wrong since the two other pilots are willing to take the risk.

e. The thought of changing arrangements is annoying, so you jump at the suggestion of the other pilots.

Situation 10. Instructor Pilot ADM Situation. You perform a slip demonstration during an approach to landing and fly the aircraft to the left of the runway centerline to a position which would make an attempted landing possible but dangerous. You return control of the aircraft to the student and instruct him to "execute proper landing procedures." Which of the following best characterizes your attitude about putting the student and yourself in this situation?

a. I can always handle this even if he can't.

b. Whatever happens, it's up to him now.

c. I've never had a problem doing this in the past.

d. The quicker we get through this, the better.

e. These aircraft can take a lot worse landings than the manuals suggest.

SCORING INSTRUCTIONS. After completing the inventory test, transfer the responses for each alternative from the completed Attitude Inventory Answer Sheet to the appropriate section of the Scoring Form. Total the ranking scores for each scale and enter the total in the space provided at the bottom of each column. The total score for each situation must be 15, while the total for situations 1 through 6 must be 90. If the totals are not 15 and 90, review for possible errors in the transfer of scores and check addition. These totals are then marked on the Attitude Profile where indicated for situations 1 through 6.

ATTITUDE PROFILE. Using the total scores for each Scale I- V from the Scoring Form, place an "X" on the corresponding scale profile on the Attitude Profile. Notice that the score values run from bottom to top, so that the highest value should be at the highest point on the profile sheet. Straight lines should be drawn from the score in each scale to the score in the next scale (connect the "X's") so that the profile resembles a graph. Note the hazardous attitude shown at the bottom of each scale on the Attitude Profile.

PROFILE EXPLANATION. The profile graph indicates the comparative tendency for each of the five hazardous attitudes. The higher the relative rank (first, second, third, etc.), the greater the propensity to respond with that hazardous attitude. The pilot should keep in mind his/her results while reviewing the explanation. An explanation of the pilot's profile starts with the description of an all-too-common flight situation.

a. A pilot of a single-engine aircraft checks the weather and notes that there is a possibility of a thunderstorm at the destination airport. The pilot has never operated an aircraft in bad weather and knows that a flight instructor would advise against flying. Despite this knowledge, the pilot takes off, crashes in poor weather, and is seriously injured.

b. Why does this occur so often? Because many accidents involve pilots who allow themselves to be influenced by one or more of the five basic hazardous attitudes. These attitudes get pilots into trouble by causing them to take chances that invite an accident. (The five hazardous attitudes are the ones recorded on the assessment inventory just completed.)


a. The pilot should use the profile to determine which hazardous attitudes dominated his/her responses. The profile will illustrate which hazardous thought patterns have a greater tendency to influence a pilot's judgment. The inventory test may indicate the actual tendency of the pilot; however, exhibiting attitudes similar to those described are common and normal. As a pilot's flying career progresses, the ability to identify these hazardous attitudes will help the pilot counteract his/her hazardous thoughts. The goal of this exercise is to balance all thoughts against possible outcomes so that actions are nonhazardous. A critical part of ADM training is learning to examine the thinking process and control hazardous attitudes. Flying will become safer if a pilot is able to identify and act upon hazardous attitudes.

b. In reviewing the five hazardous attitudes, a pilot should pay particular attention to hazardous attitudes that may characterize his/her own tendencies. Hazardous attitudes occur to every pilot to some degree at some time. Problems arise when these hazardous attitudes occur regularly and/or to an extreme. Therefore, a pilot should learn to recognize these hazardous attitudes in order to take corrective action.

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